ປະເດັນຫຼັກທີ່ສົ່ງຜົນຕໍ່ຊິວິດການເປັນຢູ່ຂອງແມ່ຍິງໃນເຂດຊົນນະບົດ Key Issues Affecting Women’s Lives

English

ໜ້າວຽກ

  • ແມ່ຍິງແມ່ນຮັບຜິດວຽກພາຍໃນບ້ານເຊັ່ນ: ການຄົວຢູ່ຄົວກິນ, ອານາໄມເຮືອນຊານ, ລ້ຽງລູກ, ໄປເອົາຟືນ, ຜ່າຟືນ, ເກືອອາຫານໃຫ້ສັດລ້ຽງ ແລະເຮັດວຽກໃນໄຮ່ໃນສວນ. ຜູ້ຊາຍເປັນຫົວໜ້າຄອບຄົວ ມີໜ້າທີ່ຮັບຜິດຊອບວຽກຢູ່ນອກບ້ານເຊັ່ນ: ຊ່ວຍວຽກໃນຊຸມຊົນ ແລະລ້າສັດ.
  • ນອກຈາກໜ້າວຽກທີ່ເຮັດເປັນປະຈໍາແລ້ວ, ແມ່ຍິງຍັງເຮັດວຽກເພີ້ມອື່ນໆອີກເພື່ອຫາຍລາຍໄດ້ເສີມໃຫ້ຄອບຄົວເຊັ່ນ ໄປເກັບເຄື່ອງປ່າຂອງດົງ ແລະຕໍ່່າຫູກ.
  • ແມ່ຍິງແມ່ນແຮງງານຫຼັກໃນການເຮັດວຽກປູກຝັງ. ຜູ້ຊາຍສ່ວນຫຼາຍຈະຊ່ວຍເລື່ອງການກະກຽມດິນປູກຝັງຕອນຕົ້ນລະດູການຜະລິດເທົ່ານັ້ນ.
  • ແມ່ຍິງສ່ວນຫຼາຍແມ່ນໃຊ້ເວລາຢູ່ໄຮ່ເກືອບໝົດມື້. ແມ່ຍິງຫຼາຍຄົນແມ່ນນອນຢູ່ໄຮ່ເລີຍ ເພາະໄຮ່ຢູ່ໄກຈາກເຮືອນຂອງເຂົາເຈົ້າ ແລະບໍ່ສາມາດທຽວໄປມາໄດ້.
  • ຂະໜາດຂອງຄອບຄົວແມ່ນມີຄວາມສໍາຄັນ. ຜູ້ທີ່ມີຄອບຄົວໃຫຍ່ ຈະມີແຮງງານຫຼາຍຂຶ້ນ ແລະພວກເຂົາສາມາດຫາເງິນໄດ້ຫຼາຍຂຶ້ນຈາກການປູກພືດຜັກ. ການມີຄອບຄົວໃຫຍ່ ຍັງໝາຍຄວາມວ່າມີສະມາຊິກໃນຄອບຄົວທີ່ເປັນແມ່ຍິງຫຼາຍຂຶ້ນທີ່ຈະມາຊ່ວຍແບ່ງເບົາໜ້າວຽກຂອງແມ່ຍິງ
  • ຄອບຄົວທຸກຍາກທີ່ມີແມ່ຍິງເປັນຫົວໜ້າຄອບຄົວ​, ພົບກັບຄວາມຍຸ້ງຍາກຫຼາຍກ່ວາຄອບຄົວທີ່ມີຜູ້ຊາຍເປັນຫົວໜ້າຄອບຄົວ. ບາງຄັ້ງບາງຄາວພວກເຂົາກໍ່ຕ້ອງອອກໄປເຮັດວຽກເປັນແຮງງານຮັບຈ້າງເພື່ອຫາລາຍໄດ້ເພີ້ມໃຫ້ກັບຄອບຄົວ.
    ແມ່ຍິງສ່ວນຫຼາຍແມ່ນຕ້ອງອາໄສຜູ້ຊາຍພາໄປຕະຫຼາດເພື່ອໄປຂາຍຜະລິດຕະພັນຕ່າງໆເພາະພວກເຂົາຂີ່ລົດຈັກບໍ່ເປັນ.
  • ຊາວບ້ານແມ່ນເຫັນຄວາມສໍາຄັນຂອງການສຶກສາ ແລະພະຍາຍາມໃຫ້ລູກຫຼານຂອງເຂົາເຈົ້າໄດ້ຮຽນໜັງສືສູງໆເທົ່າທີ່ສາມາດສະໜັບສະໜູນໄດ້. ແຕ່ນີ້ກໍ່ໝາຍຄວາມວ່າ ແມ່ຍິງຈະມີຜູ້ເຮັດວຽກຊ່ວຍຢູ່ເຮືອນ ແລະຢູ່ໄຮ່ໜ້ອຍລົງ.
  • ແມ່ຍິງເຜົ່າມົ້ງ ທີ່ມີອາຍຸແຕ່ຍັງໂສດ ແລະຢູ່ຄົນດຽວ ສ່ວນຫຼາຍຈະຖືກຊາວບ້ານຈໍາແນກ ແລະດູມິ່ນ.

Workload Lao.pngpjimage copy

  • ໂພສະນາການ

  • ດືອນພືດສະພາ ເຖິງ ເດືອນກໍລະກົດ ແມ່ນລະດູການຜະລິດ. ຫຼາຍຄົນເອີ້ນລະດູນິ້ວ່າ ລະດູຂາດແຄນ. ແມ່ຍິງ, ໂດຍສະເພາະແມ່ຍິງເຜົ່າມົ້ງ, ສ່ວນໃຫຍ່ແມ່ນກິນຢູ່ ແລະນອນຢູ່ໄຮ່.
  • ໃນຊ່ວງເວລາທີ່ແມ່ຍິງຢູ່ໄຮ່, ພວກເຂົາສ່ວນຫຼາຍຈະໄດ້ກິນຊິ້ນກິນປາກໍ່ຕໍ່ເມື່ອຜູ້ຊາຍເອົາມາໃຫ້ເຂົາເຈົ້າເທົ່ານັ້ນ.
  • ຄອບຄົວທຸກຍາກ​, ທີ່ມີແມ່ຍິງເປັນຫົວໜ້າຄອບຄົວ ແມ່ນມີຄວາມສ່ຽງໃນການຂາດແຄນອາຫານ. ໂດຍສະເພາະແມ່ນຄອບຄົວທີ່ບໍ່ມີຜູ້ຊາຍ ເພາະພວກເຂົາບໍ່ມີໃຜທີ່ຈະໄປລ້າສັດຫາອາຫານມາໃຫ້ຄອບຄົວກິນ ດັ່ງນັ້ນຄອບຄົວດັ່ງກ່າວ ສ່ວນຫຼາຍແມ່ນກິນຜັກທີ່ເຂົາເຈົ້າຫາມາໄດ້ເປັນອາຫານຫຼັກ.
  • ເຖິງແມ່ນວ່າແມ່ຍິງຈະສາມາດເກັບເຄື່ອງປ່າຂອງດົງທີ່ມີຄຸນຄ່າອາຫານສູງເຊັ່ນ: ເຫັດ ແຕ່ສ່ວນຫຼາຍແມ່ນເອົາໄວ້ຂາຍຫຼາຍກ່ວາເອົາໄວ້ກິນ (ໂດຍສະເພາະເຫັດທີ່ມີລາຄາສູງ)
  • Nutrition

    ຢາປາບສັດຕູພືດ

  • ສ່ວນຫຼວງຫຼາຍ ແມ່ນຜູ້ຊາຍເປັນຜູ້ສີດຢາປາບສັດຕູພືດ ແຕ່ແມ່ຍິງແມ່ນຊ່ວຍໃນການກະກຽມເຄມີ ແລະຊ່ວຍຈັບ ແລະດຶງສາຍຢາງລະຫວ່າງທີ່ຜູ້ຊາຍສີດຢາ.
  • ສ່ວນຫຼວງຫຼາຍ, ປະຊາຊົນແມ່ນຮູ້ກ່ຽວກັບອັນຕະລາຍຂອງການນໍາໃຊ້ສານເຄມີ ແລະຮູ້ວິທີການປ້ອງກັນຕົນເອງ (ດ້ວຍການໃສ່ເຄື່ອງເສື້ອຜ້າປ້ອງກັນ ແລະໃສ່ໜ້າກາກເພື່ອປິດປາກ) ແຕ່ໃນພາກປະຕິບັດ, ພວກເຂົາພັດບໍ່ໃສ່ເຄື່ອງປ້ອງກັນເນື່ອງຈາກວ່າອາກາດແມ່ນຮ້ອນຫຼາຍ ຈຶ່ງບໍ່ໃສ່ເສື້ອປ້ອງກັນຫຼືເອົາຜ້າປິດປາກ.
  • ນອກຈາກນັ້ນແລ້ວ ສ່ວນຫຼາຍຜູ້ຊ່ວຍຖືສາຍຢາງຈະບໍ່ໃສ່ຜ້າອັດປາກ ຫຼືເຄື່ອງປ້ອງກັນເຊັ່ນກັນ.
    ບາງຄົນຍັງໃຊ້ມືເປົ່າໃນການຄົນສານເຄມີ ແລະມັກເຮັດໃກ້ກັບແຫຼ່ງນໍ້າໃຊ້ ເຊັ່ນໃກ້ຫ້ວຍນໍາ້.
  • ປະຊາຊົນສ່ວນຫຼາຍຍັງມີຄວາມເຊື່ອວ່າ ຖ້າຫາກພວກເຂົາຢຸດຫ່າງຈາກແຫຼ່ງນໍ້າໜຶ່ງເມັດ ລະຫວ່າງທີ່ພວກເຂົາສີດ ສານເຄມີທີ່ສີດຈະບໍ່ເຮັດໃຫ້ສານເຄມີໄຫຼ່ລົງແຫຼ່ງນໍ້າ ຫຼືເຮັດໃຫ້ແຫຼ່ງນໍ້າໄດ້ຮັບສານພິດ.
  • ປະຊາຊົນສ່ວນຫຼາຍມັກນນນໍາເອົາກ່ອງສານເຄມີເປົ່າ ມານໍາໃຊ້ໃນການຕັກ ຫຼືເກັບນໍ້າໄວ້ດື່ມ ຫຼືໃຊ້ຄົວຢູ່ຄົວກິນ ແລະນໍາໃຊ້ເປັນພາຫະນະອື່ນໆພາຍໃນຄົວເຮືອນ.
  • ສາມາດອ່ານເພີ້ມເຕີມກ່ຽວກັບການນໍາໃຊ້ຢາປາບສັດຕູພືດຢູ່ແຂວງຊຽງຂວາງ ຈາກບົດຄວາມ ຢາປາບສັດຕູພືດ: ສາເຫດທີ່ເຮັດໃຫ້ເກີດຄວາມເປັນຫ່ວງ.
    table
    ຜົນຈາກການກວດເລືອດ 767 ຕົວຢ່າງ ທີ່ເຮັດຢູ່ແຂວງຊຽງຂວາງ ຊີ້ໃຫ້ເຫັນວ່າ ເກືອບເຄີ່ງໜຶ່ງຂອງຈໍານວນຄົນທີ່ໄດ້ຮັບການກວດເລືອດ ແມ່ນມີສານຕົກຂ້າງຈາກຢາປາບສັດຕູພືດໃນເລືອດຢູ່ໃນຂັ້ນສ່ຽງ ຫຼືຂັ້ນອັນຕະລາຍ.
    ແຫຼ່ງຂໍ້ມູນ: ຢາປາບສັດຕູພືດ: ສາເຫດທີ່ເຮັດໃຫ້ເກີດຄວາມເປັນຫ່ວງ.

    Key Issues Affecting Women’s Lives

    Workload

    • Women are responsible for all the housework in addition to working in the fields: cooking, cleaning, child-rearing, collecting water, collecting and chopping firewood, and feeding the animals. While men, as the heads of households, are responsible for other tasks outside the home, hunting and community work.
    • In addition to their day-to-day household chores, women often take on additional tasks, such as collecting forest products and weaving to earn additional income for their families.
    • Women provide most of the labour for growing crops. Usually, men only help out at the beginning of the growing season by participating in crop planting.
    • Women spend most of their time in the fields. Many women even sleep in the fields because the fields are too far to return home every night.

    • Family size matters. Extended families have automatic access to a larger pool of labour that enables them to earn more money growing crops. Larger families also mean that there are more females to share the women’s workload.
    • Poor, female-headed households are more vulnerable than male-headed households. When outside work is available, the women often work as hired hands to gain extra income for their families.
    • Women rely on men to take them to the market to sell their produce because most women do not know how to ride motorbikes.
    • Villagers have embraced the importance of education and keep their children in school as long as possible. However, this also means that women receive less help with household chores and for work in the fields.

    Workload English.png

  • Read more about gender and women’s workload in:

    At the Crossroads: Poverty, Gender and Ethnicity Issues in the Northern Uplands of the Lao PDR

    World Bank’s Country Gender Assessment for Lao PDR

    workload

    Nutrition

    • May to July is growing season. It has also come to be known as the lean period. Women, especially Hmong women, spend both days and nights in the fields. During these months, they rely on the food that they can glean in and around the fields, which are mostly leafy vegetables and bamboo shoots.
    • While in the field, women only get to eat meat and fish when the men bring these items.
    • Poor, female-headed households are vulnerable to food shortages.  Families that do not have male family members are especially prone to shortages because they do not have anyone who can go hunt for food. As a result, the family has to subsist on a diet that mainly consists of vegetables gathered by the women.
    • Although many women collect edible and nutritious forest products, these are usually collected for sale rather than for personal consumption.
    Table Food Sources

    Read more about food security in the northern uplands in:

    Understanding Food Security in Northern Laos: An analysis of household food security strategies in upland production systems

    Women, Food and Land: Understanding the impact of gender on nutrition, food security and community resilience in Lao PDR

    pjimage

    Pesticides

    • Usually, men spray the pesticides but women help them with the preparation of the chemicals and by holding and pulling the feeder hose while the men spray.
    • For the most part, villagers are aware of the dangers of using chemicals and they know how to protect themselves (by wearing protective clothing and masks to cover their mouths), but in practice they do not always do so because it is too hot to wear the protective clothing and the mask.
    • It is also common that the person who holds the hose does not wear a mask or wear protective clothing.
    • Some people still mix the chemicals using their bare hands and do it close to their primary water source.
    • There is a widespread belief that, if the villagers keep a one meter distance from the water source while spraying the chemicals, they will not contaminate the water source.
    • Villagers like to use the empty chemical containers for fetching drinking water as well as for a variety of other purposes within the household.

    Learn more about pesticides usage in Xieng Khouang province in Pesticides: a cause for concern.

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    Results of 767 blood samples taken in Xieng Khouang province show that roughly half of the people tested had either at-risk or unsafe levels of pesticide residue in their blood. Source: Pesticides: a cause for concern.